### Descriptive Statistics & Inferential Statistics: How to Answer to Statistical Exercise in five Steps

In this article, we will discuss how to attempt such a statistical exercise in simple easy steps and answer it correctly.

### What is Epidemiology?

Policymakers use this information to formulate rules, regulations, and guidelines for the prevention and control of the disease. The role of an epidemiologist is like a detective who tries to solve the puzzle of cause and effect. Which ultimately helps in restoring public health.

### Epidemiology- What is Incidence and Prevalence in Epidemiology? Incidence Vs Prevalence

Is it possible to have a disease where the incidence rate is going down but the prevalence rate is going up?

### Epidemiology: What is Bias, Chance, and Confounders in Epidemiology?

Amidst the confusion created by confounders and other factors not obviously causing the disease, epidemiologist use statistics and derive conclusions using p-value or probability which measure chance!

### Epidemiological Study Designs: An Introduction to Epidemiological Studies

Epidemiology definition is not just a definition but a philosophy

### The Family Adoption Programme in MBBS Medical Education | Competency-Based Medical Education

The National Medical Commission has introduced a family adoption programme recently in the MBBS curriculum. Many colleges have started it in their respective colleges.

## What is Family Adoption Programme (FAP)?

### What are the objectives of the Family Adoption Programme?

To maintain the high standards of Indian medical education, NMC is making continuous modifications.

So that equitable health distribution through well-trained allopathic doctors could be provided to the citizens of India.

## A few challenges highlighted in medical education are:

Production of doctors with poor practical knowledge, in spite of having 845 medical colleges and more than 1 lac seats. Some essential skills like identifying diseases, and differentiating serious conditions requiring emergency treatment from milder or chronic ailments.

And practical training in administering iv fluid, drawing blood, and wound dressing, so that such doctors cater to rural health care needs efficiently.

There are more than 6 lac villages across 736 districts of India where 66.7% of the country’s total population lives.

## Health problems in rural areas.

Mainly infectious/waterborne diseases, Injuries, and snakebites/insect bites.

Non-communicable diseases include metabolic disorders, accidents and injuries also include mental illnesses.

Most importantly there is a lack of awareness among them. If rural health improves the overall health of the country improves.

## Rural Health Training Centers:

Rural health training is already a part of the MBBS curriculum under rural health training centers affiliated with each medical college.

So now Rural health training further crystallized into a family adoption programme, through a village outreach project.

Under this scheme, students are expected to Adopt 5-7 house-holds per student

Give health education under the guidance Visit can be organized at a suitable time at the institute

With the help of panchayat and health staff, we will be able to sensitize the villagers and gain their acceptance and confidence.

## Household information in the Family Adoption Programme:

Students are expected to record each household in the logbook.

Demographics to be recorded like age gender etc.

Students shall be introduced to the art of history taking like asking about illness and inquiring about addiction in the family and so on.

Similarly measuring height and weight taking vitals and general and oral examination can be taught.

With help and support from others, dept investigations like haemoglobin, and blood sugar can be done.

Students should take the initiative in being the primary contact for the family in case of emergency in consultation with their mentors.

## Follow-up records in The Family Adoption Programme:

Follow-up records must be maintained by the students, which will be periodically evaluated by the mentors.

all the data can be submitted at the end of the 6th semester.

Things like social responsibility, tree plantation, cleanliness, and sanitation shall be incorporated into this programme for the holistic development of the Indian medical graduate.

The FAP is expected to hone communication skills which are the backbone of the profession

Developing leadership qualities and making them better doctors.

#medicaleducation #medicalcollege #medicalstudents

### Vectors of Medical Importance

#vectors By Dr Khushboo Hadiya PSM

Vector-borne diseases are a major public health concern, affecting around half of the world’s population. Vectors are living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans.

Many of these vectors are bloodsucking insects, which ingest disease-producing microorganisms during a blood meal from an infected host (human or animal) and later inject it into a new host during their subsequent blood meal.

Mosquitoes are the best-known disease vector. Others include ticks, flies, sandflies, fleas, triatomine bugs, and some freshwater aquatic snails.

### BIOLOGICAL CONTROL METHODS- ANTI LARVAL MEASURES

One of the most successful and widely used biological control agents against mosquito larvae is the anti-larval fish.

### Probability Bay’s theorem: Surprisingly Easy To Understand

Bayes’ theorem is a fundamental concept in probability theory that describes the relationship between the probability of an event occurring (the prior probability) and the probability of that event occurring given certain evidence (the posterior probability). The theorem is named after Thomas Bayes, an 18th-century statistician and theologian who first published the theorem in his 1763 essay “An Essay Towards Solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances.”

The theorem is expressed mathematically as:

P(A|B) = P(B|A) * P(A) / P(B)

Where:

• P(A|B) is the probability of event A occurring given that event B has occurred (the posterior probability)
• P(B|A) is the probability of event B occurring given that event A has occurred (the likelihood)
• P(A) is the probability of event A occurring (the prior probability)
• P(B) is the probability of event B occurring (the marginal likelihood or the normalizing constant)

The theorem is used to update the probability of an event occurring based on new information or evidence. It can be used in a wide range of applications, including decision-making, machine learning, natural language processing, and medical diagnosis.

It is important to note that Bayes’ theorem is based on the assumption of conditional independence, which means that the probability of an event occurring is not affected by the occurrence of other events.

### Mosquito-Borne Diseases, Vector Born Diseases, Insecticide -II

A vector-borne disease is a type of illness that is transmitted to humans (or other animals) by an intermediate host, known as a vector. Vectors are organisms that carry pathogens (disease-causing agents) and transmit them to other living creatures.

## Mosquito-Borne diseases (Mosquito-Transmitted Diseases)

Mosquitoes are vectors (organisms that transmit diseases) for a number of diseases. Some of the most common mosquito-borne diseases include:

1. Malaria: Malaria is a tropical disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. It can cause fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms, and can be severe or even fatal if left untreated.
2. West Nile virus: West Nile virus is a viral illness that is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. It can cause fever, headache, muscle weakness, and sometimes a rash or swollen lymph nodes. In rare cases, it can lead to severe neurological symptoms such as encephalitis or meningitis.
3. Zika virus: Zika virus is a viral illness that is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. It can cause fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause severe birth defects in infants, including microcephaly (a small head and brain).
4. Chikungunya virus: Chikungunya virus is a viral illness that is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. It can cause fever, joint pain, and rash.
5. Dengue fever: Dengue fever is a viral illness that is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. It can cause fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, and a rash. In severe cases, it can lead to dengue hemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.

To prevent mosquito-borne diseases, it is important to take precautions to avoid mosquito bites, such as using insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and using mosquito netting. In some areas, insecticides may be used to control the mosquito population. Vaccines are also available for some mosquito-borne diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

## Vector Born Diseases

A vector-borne disease is a type of illness that is transmitted to humans (or other animals) by an intermediate host, known as a vector. Vectors are organisms that carry pathogens (disease-causing agents) and transmit them to other living creatures.

Examples of vectors include:

• Mosquitoes: Mosquitoes are the most common vectors of diseases. They transmit diseases such as malaria, West Nile virus, Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue fever.
• Ticks: Ticks are vectors of diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and tularemia.
• Sand flies: Sand flies are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis.
• Lice: Lice are vectors of diseases such as epidemic typhus and trench fever.
• Fleas: Fleas are vectors of diseases such as the plague.

## Control of Mosquitos Using Insecticides

Insecticides are chemical compounds that are used to kill or control the population of insects. Mosquitoes are a common target of insecticides, as they are vectors (organisms that transmit diseases) for a number of diseases, including malaria, West Nile virus, Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and dengue fever.

There are several different types of insecticides that can be used to control mosquitoes, including:

## Pyrethroids:

• Pyrethroids are synthetic chemicals that are similar to naturally occurring compounds called pyrethrins, which are found in certain plants. Pyrethroids are effective against a wide range of insects, including mosquitoes, and are often used in mosquito control.

## Organophosphates:

• Organophosphates: Organophosphates are a type of insecticide that works by disrupting the nervous system of insects. They are effective against a wide range of insects, including mosquitoes, but can also be toxic to humans and other animals if not used properly.

## Carbamates:

• Carbamates: Carbamates are a type of insecticide that works by inhibiting an enzyme that is necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system in insects. They are effective against a wide range of insects, including mosquitoes, but can also be toxic to humans and other animals if not used properly.

Insecticides can be applied to surfaces or released into the air to control mosquito populations. They can also be applied to clothing or skin as a personal insect repellent. It is important to use insecticides according to the manufacturer’s instructions and to follow all safety precautions to avoid exposure to toxic chemicals.

## What Is Integrated Vector Control Measure?

Integrated vector control is a public health approach that combines a range of strategies to control vector-borne diseases. Vectors are organisms that transmit diseases, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. Integrated vector control involves using a combination of approaches to reduce the risk of vector-borne diseases, including:

1. Chemical control: This involves the use of insecticides to kill or control vector populations.
2. Physical control: This involves the use of physical barriers, such as screens, to prevent vectors from entering homes and other buildings. It also involves eliminating standing water (where mosquitoes lay their eggs) and improving sanitation to reduce the breeding sites of vectors.
3. Biological control: This involves the use of natural predators or parasites to reduce vector populations.
4. Educational and behavioral interventions: This involves educating the public about how to prevent vector-borne diseases, such as using insect repellent and wearing protective clothing.
5. Engineering Measures: Mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water, so eliminating sources of standing water can help reduce the mosquito population. This can be done by emptying containers that hold water (such as buckets, tires, and bird baths), repairing leaks, and properly maintaining pools and other water sources. Proper Storage and Disposal of Solid waste is also very important.

Integrated vector control is a multifaceted approach that aims to reduce the risk of vector-borne diseases in a sustainable and cost-effective manner. It is important to use an integrated approach, as no single strategy is sufficient on its own to control vector-borne diseases.

Source WHO